International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research <h1><strong style="font-size: 24px;">Our Vision</strong></h1> <p>Our vision encompasses publishing progressive peer-reviewed research articles par excellence using the open-access model of publication, without any constraint, financial, or other imposed on the readers. Our aim is to build mutually beneficial and long-lasting relationships with our authors and provide them full support throughout the publishing and the post-publishing processes. The International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research (IJRIAR) accepts submissions of a wide range of article types, including original research, reviews and feature articles. The author information section provides specific article requirements to help you turn your research into an article suitable for IJRIAR.</p> <p><strong>Mode of Publication:</strong> Print and Online (P-ISSN: 2659-1561 &amp; E-ISSN: 2635-3040).</p> <p><strong>Frequency of Publication:</strong> Monthly.</p> <p><strong>Review Time (Duration in Days):</strong> 10 working days.</p> <p><strong>Articles can be submitted at:</strong>,</p> <p><strong>Contact us:</strong>, or +91-7382318191.</p> Kopparthi Venkata Siva Reddy en-US International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2659-1561 Language Proficiency and Academic Performance in Science: Basis for Developing Intervention Activities <p>This research paper was conducted with the aim of determining the language proficiency of the students particularly in syntax and semantics and level of academic performance in Science subject, and the significant relationship between language proficiency and academic performance of the students. Descriptive-Quantitative Method has been utilized in this study to analyze and interpret the results. Researcher-made test was used to gather data. To interpret the data, Pearson-r moment of correlation was utilized to determine the significance of the hypothetical problem of the study. The findings revealed that the language proficiency of the students in terms of syntax and semantics is on beginning level leading to the hypothesis that there is significant relationship between the level of language proficiency and academic performance in science. The results signify that linguistic proficiency affects the academic performance of the students in science subject. In this regard, both teachers in English and Science subject could create tasks and activities where they can let the students master both skills in language use and knowledge in science. More so, integration of tasks is proposed to let the students accomplish more than one competency for both learning areas.</p> Melody B. De Chavez, MAEd Anita M. Amada, MAEd Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-17 2022-04-17 6 4 1 9 Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Rice Production in Selected Areas in Kambia District, Northern Region <p>This study assessed technical efficiency of rice farmers in Kambia district, northern region of Sierra Leone. Multistage sampling technique was used to model 130 rice farmers in Kambia district. A stochastic frontier production function was used to estimate technical efficiency. The study further assessed the factors that affect technical efficiency of the rice farmers. All the coefficients were found to have positively influenced on rice productivity in the district. The level of efficiency of rice farmers was found to be 0.63. The study further found that gender and household size were significant determinants of technical efficiency. The finding of the study reveals that the majority of the sample households of male is 56.9% compared to 43.1 who were female, the average productivity of rice was 2.8 tons per hectare. The labor cost was the main cost item in rice production which took about 54.6% of the total variable cost which is Le 1,170,000, and followed by costs of seed and fertilizer. The enterprise budget analysis result indicates that experimented farmers obtained a profit ratio of 23.9% per hectare with benefit cost ratio of 1.98 with a breakeven price and yield of 42.58 per kg of 54 kg per hectare. Moreover, gross margin of rice production is more sensitive for grain price and yield fluctuations than input costs. The study therefore recommended policies that will ensure that costs of productive inputs are affordable to farmers and improving households’ income through better prices for their output. Provision of labor saving equipment is also important in reducing inefficiencies in rice production through reduction in labor cost. Therefore, rice production is a profitable enterprise and the study recommend that research institution should focus on developing and promoting productivity and labor saving skills. It is also recommended that land expansion in the short term should be promoted while improving rice farmers’ productivity in the short, medium to long term to boost production levels. Also, for accelerated rice production, government policy should be geared towards encouraging large scale farmers to enter the rice sub-sector while government continues to improve the productivity of the smallholder rice farmers. Government should improve infrastructure especially roads to open up rice farming communities to market centres and reduce transactions costs and reduce the oligopolistic system operated by market women.</p> Saffa M. Massaquoi Prof. Adolphus Johnson Kenneth L. Mangoh Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 6 4 10 22 Monetary Policy and Stock Market Return in Nigeria <p>This paper examines monetary policy and stock market return in Nigeria from 2010-2019. Secondary data used for the study was obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin of various years. Ex post facto research design was adopted in carrying out the research while multiple linear regression model was used to find the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The study established a significant relationship between monetary policy (exchange rate, inflation rate and interest rate) and stock market return in Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that monetary authorities in Nigeria should implement favourably monetary policies in order to keep the Nigeria stock market to be attractive to investors and that there should be increase in money supply and maintain low monetary policy rate so that local and foreign investors can be attracted to stock market.</p> Abolade Francis AKINTOLA Bola Olatunbosun AROYEWUN Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 6 4 23 27 Productivity and Economic Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Cocoa Production in Kailahun District, Eastern Sierra Leone <p>This study measured the profitability of cocoa farms in Kailahun district, eastern Sierra Leone, the largest cocoa producing district. Cocoa is a major export crop of Sierra Leone with high production and export level. This study uses an ex-ante analytical approach to discover the potential for cocoa farmers to develop position markets for an environmentally and sustainably producing using an economic decision criteria and profitability. A stratified random sample of 150 farmers in Kailahun from twelve (12) chiefdoms were selected, using the multistage sampling approach. Individual farmers were interviewed by using questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential analyses of the survey data were performed. Regression analysis was employed to estimate the Cobb-Douglas production function from the farm data for the measurement of cost-effective analysis of technical efficiency of the cocoa farmers. The estimated elasticity from the production function and prices of input and output were subsequently used to calculate the measures of allotment efficiency of resource use by the farmers. Results of the study revealed that Cocoa production has high return on investment of 75.89% and 140% for the farmer and processor. The coefficients for household size, cocoa farm size, quantity of insecticides, quantity of fungicides, and quantity of fertilizer were 0.261, 0.514, 0.273, 0.090 and 0.325, respectively. The quantity of fertilizer applied to the cocoa farm had the highest marginal physical product (133.11 kg/ bag), and that of quantity of fungicides variable (1.39 kg/satchet) was lowest. Household size, farm size, insecticides, fungicides and fertilizer were found to have statistically significant impact on cocoa output. The sum of elasticities of the factors included in the Cobb-Douglas production function was 1.463, which was more than one, implying that the cocoa farmers were operating in the increasing returns to scale. There were incidences of inefficiencies in the management of resources in cocoa cultivation by cocoa farmers since some resources were underutilized and others over-utilized. Farmers are advised to increase the use of household members, insecticides, fungicides and fertilizer while reducing the use of forest land through increased land productivity instead of land expansion to ensure efficient use of resource in cocoa production. However, the ecofriendly impacts of these farm activities should be assessed to ensure sustainable cocoa production.</p> Saffa M. Massaquoi Prof. Adolphus Johnson Dr. Saffa B. Massaquoi Kenneth L. Mangoh Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-22 2022-04-22 6 4 28 47 Literature Review on Factors Influencing Negative Attitude of Students on Covid-19 Vaccines in Uganda <p>Background and aims: Since 2019 Covid-19 disease is still a challenge with its high speed of spreading which scares everyone all over the world. As other disease of the same category, vaccine happened to be the only solution of this virus. Many countries are still looking for the solution by looking for enough vaccines to help their people. Though the intervention and strategies of eliminating the virus is high, the rates of people willing to take vaccines are still low in African countries; even the individuals chosen by government to be at high risk are still doubting the vaccines. This review was done with purpose of finding out the factors influencing students’ negative attitudes towards Covid-19 vaccines in Uganda. Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed, ScienceDirect, PMC, MedRxiv, SAGE Journal and Google Scholar, and from above 10,000 top cited articles, 16 were selected for the current study. Results: Most of related review of previous studies on Factors influencing negative attitude of students on Covid-19 vaccines found that a variety of different factors contributed to increased negative attitudes, including the following: having negative perception of vaccine efficacy especially some students whom with their parents do not have enough information about vaccines and those who had blood clots from the first vaccines of AstraZeneca and Johnson &amp; Johnson, other refused by their parents or guardians with no clear reasons, safety of the vaccines, some staff’s influence to their relative students, and fear of suitability of vaccines with their body, other claims that they do not need vaccines because their body immunity is strong through using herbals recommended, and others relate the vaccines to their personal religion belief. Government should establish seminars and training emphasizing the use and benefits of this vaccines and give more information about it. Conclusions: Among the factors observed in this study were, fear from those who died after people get first vaccines, lack of enough information, influence from parents/guardians, influence from those who receive first vaccine and got challenges, negative information about vaccines (causing blood clots). Use of recommended vaccines is very important as health of many people is concerned, but people need more knowledge about these vaccines and those delivering these vaccines also need more skills about this to assist those they attend to and have one language.</p> Niyitegeka Josue Michael B. Welwel Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-24 2022-04-24 6 4 48 52 Popular Internet Meme Templates through the Semiotic-Symbolic Interactionist Lens: A Look into Meme Culture <p>This study analysed popular internet meme templates as a form of cultural expression by using the theories of semiotics and symbolic interactionism. It revealed the popularity of these templates, how it allowed a select group to communicate particular emotions in a distinct culture than other forms of language representations permit and if a specific group can understand the semiotic and symbolic-interactionist meaning of memes by making their own templates. An explanatory sequential mixed method was used which included thirty Graduate School students from a selected private university. Five templates were presented and respondents were asked to answer questions intended to reveal their culture and perceived understanding of the context and purpose of memes. The study showed that respondents were able to identify the semiotic meaning of the memes presented, and can identify the signifier-signified used in each template. The difficulty lies on the understanding of the symbolic-interactionist meaning where respondents tend to take the “surface” rather than the “subliminal” meaning. This was affected by some factors: a) familiarity and interest with memes. b) personal understanding of meme semiotics. c) syntax used in the creation of memes. The study recommends that people who intend to use memes for instruction such as educators should be exposed in the appropriateness of memes relative to their use in teaching. This can be done by coaching teachers on both semiotic and symbolic-interactionist contents of a meme template they wish to use in their instruction.</p> Aldrin A. Alcantara Joanna Marie O. Yocampo Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 6 4 53 59 Discovering the Cultural Setbacks and Experiences of Bicolanos during the Coronavirus Pandemic: An Ethnomethodology Study <p>This paper dealt with the theories and models formed from the cultural setbacks and experiences of Bicolanos during the corona virus pandemic. The research used grounding theory approach with theoretical sampling and codes to themes saturation to see all the overlapping ideas from people in social media, news, videos, radio station, literatures and others. The result showed four theoretical models. The first knowing, expressing and sharing is integral to custom. The perspectives show that jokes and puns are creatively used and people should-have and would-have been experiences. There is a demand to be informed and ideas to be heard. All of this are part of sense of belonging experience. The next theory is the embrace of the new culture and the preservation of tradition. Attributes have shown that Bicolanos prefers to integrate new culture but they will wait for the time to celebrate the traditional ones. The practice of ethics and resiliency as inherent to the region also manifested. Values embedded from young age and modeled by the old are parts of the habits. Despite the pandemic attributes such as compassion, Bayanihan, ingenuity, acceptance, positivity and the value of home is still thriving. The last theoretical finding is the concern for divisions and discord with degradation of proxemics, conflict and dissatisfaction as its attributes. The research shows the value of culture to Bicolanos and how they have responded to the unique circumstance.</p> Aldrin A. Alcantara Joanna Marie O. Yocampo Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 6 4 60 72 Influence of Service Costs on Financial Sustainability of the Water Companies in North Rift Counties of Kenya <p>This study aimed at establishing the effect of service costs on the scheme types adopted by the water companies in the North Rift Counties of Kenya. The findings from this study would be of significance to various stakeholders. The study as constructed on: The New Economic Theory; Budget Theory; Modern Portfolio Theory and theory of Financial Control. This study adopted a constructivist paradigm with a survey research design as it assumes quantitative methodology. The target population consisted of all water companies in the North Rift Counties of Kenya with a registered pension scheme. This study utilized census sampling. The study used questionnaires as a tool for data collection. A pilot study was done to determine the reliability and validity of the study. Data was described using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, which gave meaning to describing the distribution of responses. Various factor analysis statistics were used to infer population characteristics from the study sample. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to establish relationships between variables. The study findings show that there is a significant relationship between service cost reforms and financial sustainability. Drawing on these findings, the study recommends that one of the strategies is that the Retirement Schemes should now strengthen their Service Cost Reforms to enable those overcome financial related challenges.</p> Owino Cornel Otieno Nyaberi Duncan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 6 4 73 78